Yes. You either need to have Eikon / Refinitiv Workspace desktop application installed, running and logged in on the same machine where you run your code utilizing RDP Library (refinitiv.dataplatform package), or, if you're creating enterprise applications, you need to have machine credentials for RDP (Refinitiv Data Platform).
Yes, machine credentials for RDP are something different. Speak with your Refinitiv account manager and discuss your use case. If you decide that you need machine credentials for RDP, your Refinitiv account manager can procure them for you.
With Eikon credentials you get a single user license. Data retrieved using these credentials must be utilized for individual user's use only. And you need to have Eikon running. If you're looking to retrieve data from RDP into an enterprise application, you need machine credentials for RDP. Mind that the datasets currently available for retrieval from RDP using Eikon and machine credentials are not the same. This is one reason I advise you to discuss your use case with your Refinitiv account manager, who can help you select Refinitiv service best suited for your use case.
It is depending on your current environment and which access point you want to get data from..
The Refinitiv Data Platform library (refinitiv.dataplatform) lets you consume data from the following platforms
The need for credentials (Eikon, RDP or Machine ID) of each endpoint is based on my colleague's posts above.